Egypt Terrain: vast desert plateau interrupted by Nile valley and delta;

Natural Resources: petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, phosphates, manganese, limestone, gypsum, talc, asbestos, lead, rare earth elements, zinc;

Natural Hazards: periodic droughts; frequent earthquakes; flash floods; landslides; hot, driving windstorm called khamsin occurs in spring; dust storms; sandstorms;

Population: 83,688,164 (July 2012 est.)


Quick Facts About Egypt


80,471,869 (July 2010 est.)

Age Structure

0-14 years: 32.8% (male 13,495,577/female 12,890,378)
15-64 years: 62.8% (male 25,689,588/female 24,871,255)
65 years and over: 4.4% (male 1,602,219/female 1,922,852) (2010 est.)


Muslim (mostly Sunni) 90%, Coptic 9%, other Christian 1%


Arabic (official), English and French widely understood by educated classes

Internet Users

11.414 million (2008)

Country Name

conventional long form: Arab Republic of Egypt
conventional short form: Egypt
local long form: Jumhuriyat Misr al-Arabiyah
local short form: Misr
former: United Arab Republic (with Syria)

Government Type



name: Cairo
geographic coordinates: 30 03 N, 31 15 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Friday in April; ends first Friday in August

Military Branches

Army, Navy, Air Force, Air Defense Command

Dependency Status



The regularity and richness of the annual Nile River flood, coupled with semi-isolation provided by deserts to the east and west, allowed for the development of one of the world”s great civilizations. A unified kingdom arose circa 3200 B.C., and a series of dynasties ruled in Egypt for the next three millennia. The last native dynasty fell to the Persians in 341 B.C., who in turn were replaced by the Greeks, Romans, and Byzantines. It was the Arabs who introduced Islam and the Arabic language in the 7th century and who ruled for the next six centuries. A local military caste, the Mamluks took control about 1250 and continued to govern after the conquest of Egypt by the Ottoman Turks in 1517. Following the completion of the Suez Canal in 1869, Egypt became an important world transportation hub, but also fell heavily into debt. Ostensibly to protect its investments, Britain seized control of Egypt”s government in 1882, but nominal allegiance to the Ottoman Empire continued until 1914. Partially independent from the UK in 1922, Egypt acquired full sovereignty with the overthrow of the British-backed monarchy in 1952. The completion of the Aswan High Dam in 1971 and the resultant Lake Nasser have altered the time-honored place of the Nile River in the agriculture and ecology of Egypt. A rapidly growing population (the largest in the Arab world), limited arable land, and dependence on the Nile all continue to overtax resources and stress society. The government has struggled to meet the demands of Egypt”s growing population through economic reform and massive investment in communications and physical infrastructure.

Area – Comparative

slightly more than three times the size of New Mexico


total: 1,001,450 sq km
land: 995,450 sq km
water: 6,000 sq km


vast desert plateau interrupted by Nile valley and delta


desert; hot, dry summers with moderate winters

Natural Hazards

periodic droughts; frequent earthquakes; flash floods; landslides; hot, driving windstorm called khamsin occurs in spring; dust storms; sandstorms