Estonia Terrain: marshy, lowlands; flat in the north, hilly in the south;

Natural Resources: oil shale, peat, rare earth elements, phosphorite, clay, limestone, sand, dolomite, arable land, sea mud;

Natural Hazards: sometimes flooding occurs in the spring;

Population: 1,266,375 (July 2013 est.)


Quick Facts About Estonia

Source: CIA World Factbook

Population: 1,291,170 (July 2010 est.)

Age Structure: 0-14 years: 15% (male 99,770/female 93,965)
15-64 years: 67.4% (male 414,315/female 456,025)
65 years and over: 17.6% (male 74,852/female 152,243) (2010 est.)

Religions: Evangelical Lutheran 13.6%, Orthodox 12.8%, other Christian (including Methodist, Seventh-Day Adventist, Roman Catholic, Pentecostal) 1.4%, unaffiliated 34.1%, other and unspecified 32%, none 6.1% (2000 census)

Languages: Estonian (official) 67.3%, Russian 29.7%, other 2.3%, unknown 0.7% (2000 census)
Internet Users: 888,100 (2008)

Country Name
conventional long form: Republic of Estonia
conventional short form: Estonia
local long form: Eesti Vabariik
local short form: Eesti
former: Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic

Government Type: parliamentary republic

Capital name: Tallinn
geographic coordinates: 59 26 N, 24 43 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

Military Branches: Estonian Defense Forces: Land Force, Navy, Air Force (Eesti Ohuvagi), Volunteer Defense League (Kaitseliit, KL) (2010)


After centuries of Danish, Swedish, German, and Russian rule, Estonia attained independence in 1918. Forcibly incorporated into the USSR in 1940 – an action never recognized by the US – it regained its freedom in 1991 with the collapse of the Soviet Union. Since the last Russian troops left in 1994, Estonia has been free to promote economic and political ties with Western Europe. It joined both NATO and the EU in the spring of 2004.

Area – Comparative: slightly smaller than New Hampshire and Vermont combined
Area total: 45,228 sq km
land: 42,388 sq km
water: 2,840 sq km
note: includes 1,520 islands in the Baltic Sea

Terrain: marshy, lowlands; flat in the north, hilly in the south
Climate: maritime; wet, moderate winters, cool summers
Natural Hazards: sometimes flooding occurs in the spring